Background Essays

Eqbal Ahmed (1997). “The Roots of Violence.” In Zia Mian and Iftikhar Ahmad eds. Making Enemies, Creating COnflict: Pakistan’s Crises of State and Society (Lahore: Mashal Books).

Hamza Alavi (1983). “Class and State.” In Hassan Gardezi and Jamal Rashid eds. Pakistan: The Roots of Dictatorship — The political economy of a praetorian state. (London: Zed Books): 40-93.

Hamza Alavi (1990). “Authoritarianism and Legitimation of State Power in Pakistan.”

Haris Gazdar (2007). “Class, Caste, or Race: Veils Over Social Oppression.” (PDF 56KB)

Ayesha Jalal (1990). “Pakistan: A Dialogue Between History and Politics” (PDF)

Shahrukh Rafi Khan (2007). “Pakistan’s Economy Since 1999: Has there been real progress?” (PDF 184KB)

Zia Mian and Iftikhar Ahmad eds (1997). Making Enemies, Creating Conflict: Pakistan’s Crises of State and Society (Lahore: Mashal Books).

Zia Mian and A. H. Nayyar (1999). “Again, Desperate Times: Musharraf’s 1999 Coup.” In Himal, Vol 12, no 11 (November 1999).

Shahnaz Rouse (1998). “The Outsider(s) Within: Sovereignty and
 Citizenship in Pakistan.” In Patricia Jeffrey and Amrita Basu eds. Appropriating Gender: Women’s Activism and Politicized Religion in South Asia (London and New York: Routledge): 53-70.

Akbar Zaidi (2004). “Elected Representatives in Pakistan: Socio-economic Background and Awareness of Issues.” In Economic and Political Weekly, 6 November 2004.

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